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The Umayyad regime, despite its administrative centralisation, mercenary army and struggle to gain wider social support, could neither harmonise the various ethnic groups inside al-Andalus nor dissolve the old tribes which still organised sporadic ethnic fighting. During the 11th century, the Caliphate's control waned considerably. Provinces broke free from the central Cordoban administration, and became effectively sovereign states — taifas — under the same governors that had been named by the last Umayyad Caliphs.
According to their origin, these "taifas" can be grouped under three broad categories: Subsequently, Muyahid organised a campaign throughout the Balearic Islands to consolidate the district and incorporated it into their "taifa" in early During the following years Palma became the main port from where attacks on Christian vessels and coasts could be launched.
Palma was the base from where a campaign against Sardinia was launched between and , which caused the Pisans and Genoese forces to intervene. Later, this intervention set the basis for Italian mercantile penetration of the city. The Denian dominion lasted until , a period during which the city, as well as the rest of the islands, was relatively peaceful. Their supremacy at sea was still not rivalled by the Italian merchant republics , thus there were few external threats.
The islands were freed from mainland dominion and briefly enjoyed independence, during which Medina Mayurqa was the capital. The economy during this period depended on both agriculture and piracy. In the latter 11th century, Christian commercial powers took the initiative at sea against the Muslims. After centuries of fighting defensively in the face of Islamic pressure, Italians, Catalans and Occitans took offensive action. Consequently, the benefits of piracy diminished causing severe economic stress on the city.
The clearest proof of the new ruling relation of forces, from , is the Crusade organised by the most important mercantile cities of the Christian states against the Islands. This effort was destined to finally eradicate Muslim piracy mainly based in Palma and surrounding havens. In , Palma was sacked and later abandoned by an expedition commanded by Ramon Berenguer III the Great, count of Barcelona and Provence , which was composed of Catalans, Pisans and other Italians, and soldiers from Provence, Corsica , and Sardinia, in a struggle to end Almoravid control.
After this, the Islands became part of the Almoravid dynasty. The inglobement of all the taifa to a larger state helped to re-establish a balance along the frontier that separated western Christian states from the Muslim world.
The situation changed in the midth century, when the Almoravids were displaced from al-Andalus and western Maghreb by the Almohad.
Almoravid dominions, from on, were restricted to the Balearic Islands , with Palma again acting as the capital, governed by Muhammad ibn Ganiya. Massive arrival of al-Andalus refugees contributed to reinforce the positions of the last Almoravid legitimatists, the Banu Ganiya, who, conscious of their weakness in the Western Mediterranean context, started to get closer to the growing powers represented by Italian maritime republics.
Genoa and Pisans obtained in this period their first commercial concessions in the city and the rest of the islands. However, this attack was repelled and the Almohad authorities encouraged anti-Almoravid revolts in the Islands.
The city was captured by the Almohads in In addition to being kept as capital of the Kingdom of Majorca, it was given a municipality that comprised the whole island. The governing arm was the University of the City and Kingdom of Majorca. His son, James II of Majorca , championed the construction of statues and monuments in the city: Bellver Castle , the churches of St.
Domingo, reformed the Palace of Almudaina and began the construction of the Cathedral of Majorca. In , anti-Jewish riots broke out. In spite of the governor's prohibition on leaving the island, many Jews fled to North Africa. The remaining Jews were forced to convert under threat of death.
Abraham Cresques was a 14th-century Jewish cartographer of the Majorcan cartographic school from Palma; Cresques is credited with the authorship of the famous Catalan Atlas.
The river that cut through the city gave rise to two distinct areas within the city; the "Upper town" and "Lower town", depending upon which side of the river one was situated. The city's advantageous geographical location allowed it extensive commerce with Catalonia , Valencia , Provence , the Maghreb , the Italian republics and the dominions of the Great Turk , which heralded a golden age for the city. At the beginning of the 16th century, the Rebellion of the Brotherhoods a peasant uprising against Charles V 's administration and the frequent attack of Turkish and Berber pirates caused a reduction of commercial activities and a huge inversion in defensive structures.
As a consequence, the city entered a period of decadence that would last till the end of the 17th century. During this period the port became a haven for pirates. During the last quarter of the century, the Inquisition continued its persecution of the city's Jews, locally called xuetes.
The fall of Barcelona in meant the end of the War of the Spanish Succession and the defeat and destruction of the Crown of Aragon , and this was reflected on the Nueva Planta decrees , issued by Philip V of Spain in These occupation decrees changed the government of the island and separated it from the municipality's government of Palma, which became the official city name.
By the end of the 19th century, the name Palma de Mallorca was generalised in written Spanish, although it is still colloquially named Ciutat "city" in Catalan. In the 18th century Charles III of Spain removed interdiction of commerce with Spanish colonies in America and the port and commercial activity of the city grew once again.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Palma became a refuge for many who had exiled themselves from the Napoleonic occupation of Catalonia and Valencia ; during this period freedom flourished, until the absolutist restoration. With the establishment of contemporary Spanish state administrative organization, Palma became the capital of the new province of Balearic Islands in the territorial division of Spain.
The French occupation of Algeria in the 19th century ended the fear of Maghrebi attacks in Majorca, which favoured the expansion of new maritime routes, and consequently, the economic growth of the city.
Since the advent of mass tourism in the s, the city has been transformed into a tourist destination and has attracted many workers from mainland Spain. This has contributed to a huge change in the city's traditions, its language and its acquisitive power.
The boom in tourism has caused Palma to grow significantly. In , Mallorca received , visitors, in it received more than 6,, The Ball dels Cossiers is the island's traditional dance. It is believed to have been imported from Catalonia in the 13th or 14th century, after the Argonian conquest of the island under King Jaime I. Another Majorcan dance is Correfoc , an elaborate festival of dance and pyrotechnics that is also of Catalan origin. The island's folk music strongly resembles that of Catalonia , and is centered around traditional instruments like the xeremia bagpipes and guitarra de canya a reed or bone xylophone -like instrument suspended from the neck.
Es Baluard in Palma is a museum of modern and contemporary art which exhibits the work of Balearic artists and artists related to the Balearic Islands. The Evolution Mallorca International Film Festival is the fastest growing Mediterranean film festival and has occurred annually every November since , attracting filmmakers, producers, and directors globally. Majorca has a long history of seafaring. The Majorcan cartographic school or the " Catalan school" refers to a collection of cartographers , cosmographers , and navigational instrument makers that flourished in Majorca and partly in mainland Catalonia in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries.
Majorcan cosmographers and cartographers developed breakthroughs in cartographic techniques, namely the "normal portolan chart ", which was fine-tuned for navigational use and the plotting by compass of navigational routes, prerequisites for the discovery of the New World.
In , there were over 2, restaurants on the island of Majorca according to the Majorcan Tourist Board, ranging from small bars to full restaurants. Herbs de Majorca is a herbal liqueur. The main language spoken on the island is Catalan. The education is bilingual in Catalan and Spanish, with some knowledge of English. In , the then-governing People's Party announced its intention to end preferential treatment for Catalan in the island's schools to bring parity to the two languages of the island.
It was said that this could lead Majorcan Catalan to become extinct in the fairly near future, as it was being used in a situation of diglossia in favour of the Spanish language. Since the s, Majorca has become a major tourist destination, and the tourism business has become the main source of revenue for the island.
The island's popularity as a tourist destination has steadily grown since the s, with many artists and academics choosing to visit and live on the island. In over 6 million visitors came to Majorca. In , Majorca was visited by nearly 9. Majorca has been jokingly referred to as the 17th Federal State of Germany, due to the high number of German tourists. With thousands of rooms available Majorca's economy is largely dependent on its tourism industry.
Holiday makers are attracted by the large number of beaches, warm weather, and high-quality tourist amenities. Data from Institute of Statistics of Balearic Islands . The Balearic Islands, of which Majorca forms part, are one of the autonomous communities of Spain. The autonomous government for the island, called Consell Insular de Mallorca Majorca Insular Council , is responsible for culture, roads, railways see Serveis Ferroviaris de Mallorca and municipal administration. The members of the Spanish Royal Family spend their summer holidays  in Majorca where the Marivent Palace is located.
While most royal residences are administered by Patrimonio Nacional , the Marivent Palace, in Palma de Mallorca, one of many Spanish royal sites , is under the care of Government of the Balearic Islands. As a private residence it is rarely used for official business. Typically, the whole family meets there and on the Fortuna yacht, where they take part in sailing competitions.
Some of the earliest famous Majorcans lived on the island before its reconquest from the Moors. Sa Calobra , Escorca. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Majorca disambiguation. Location in the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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La Seu , Palma Cathedral. Cap de Ses Salines. Catalan-speaking Countries portal Spain portal. Retrieved 16 October Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 7 April Reference to Balearic Islands autonomy. Retrieved 7 September Production system, conservation and breeding strategies" , J.
Institut Balear de Biologia Animal. Reference to Talayot Culture on the island. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. Archived from the original on 18 November Retrieved 8 January Reference to Puig Major and its height above sea level.