Beyond churches and religious denominations, a phenomenon persists in Mexico that some anthropologists and sociologists call "popular religion", that is, religion as the practice and understanding of the people. In Mexico, the main component is the Catholic religion, to which elements of other beliefs have been added, already of pre-Hispanic, African or Asian origin.
In general, popular religiosity is viewed with bad eyes by institutionally structured religions. One of the most exemplary cases of popular religiosity is the cult of Holy Dead Santa Muerte. The Catholic hierarchy insists on describing it as a satanic cult. However, most of the people who profess this cult declare themselves to be Catholic believers, and consider that there is no contradiction between the tributes they offer to the White Child and the adoration of God. Other examples are the representations of the Passion of Christ and the celebration of Day of the Dead , which take place within the framework of the Catholic Christian imaginary, but under a very particular reinterpretation of its protagonists.
Until the twentieth century, Mexico was an overwhelmingly rural country, with rural women's status defined within the context of the family and local community. With urbanization beginning in the sixteenth century, following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire , cities have provided economic and social opportunities not possible within rural villages.
As of [update] , Mexico has the 16th highest rate of homicides committed against women in the world. Mexican culture reflects the complexity of the country's history through the blending of indigenous cultures and the culture of Spain , imparted during Spain's year colonization of Mexico. Exogenous cultural elements have been incorporated into Mexican culture as time has passed. The Porfirian era el Porfiriato , in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, was marked by economic progress and peace.
Since that time, as accentuated during the Mexican Revolution , cultural identity has had its foundation in the mestizaje , of which the indigenous i. Amerindian element is the core. The painting is one of the oldest arts in Mexico. The cave painting in Mexican territory is about years old, and has been manifested in the caves of the Baja California Peninsula.
Pre-Hispanic Mexico is present in buildings and caves, in Aztec codices , in ceramics , in garments, etc. The mural painting had an important flowering during the 16th century, the same in religious constructions as in houses of lineage; such is the case of the convents of Acolman , Actopan , Huejotzingo , Tecamachalco and Zinacantepec. It is said that they were mainly indigenous painters led by friars who made them. For a time it was believed that the first European painter living in New Spain was Rodrigo de Cifuentes , an apocryphal artist who even came to be attributed works such as The Baptism of the Caciques de Tlaxcala , painting of the main altarpiece of the Convent of San Francisco in Tlaxcala.
Among the native painters was Marcos Aquino. The religiosity of the Novohispanos "New-spanish" made that the painting was important for the evangelization of the society, the friars realized the graphic skills of the natives, who enriched the baroque and mannerist style. The painting of the 19th century had a very marked romantic influence, landscapes and portraits were the greatest expression of this era. Hermenegildo Bustos is one of the most appreciated painters of the historiography of Mexican art.
The Oaxacan School quickly gained fame and prestige, diffusion of an ancestral and modern culture, freedom of design is observed in relation to the color and texture of the canvases and murals as a period of transition between the 20th century and the 21st century.
Some of the most outstanding painters in the 21st century current painters: She studied painting in Beijing. Her work, of marked oriental influence, recalls the cut paper figures of Mexico and China, mixing them with a rich chromatic range; Eliseo Garza Aguilar , painter and performer considered among the leading exponents of the provocative and reflective art of the Third Millennium; in search of a critical response from the spectators, he combines his pictorial work in the performances with theatrical histrionics; Pilar Goutas , a painter who uses oil on amate support, with strong influence from Jackson Pollock and Chinese calligraphy ; Rafael Torres Correa settles his residence in Mexico in and joins the contemporary art workshop "La Polilla" in Guadalajara , and performs various plastic and scenographic projects.
Throughout history several prominent painters of different nationalities have expressed in their works the face of Mexico. From the Spanish conquest, civil and religious sculpture is worked by indigenous artists, with guidance from teachers of the peninsula, so some pre-Hispanic features are shown. Since the 17th century, white and mestizo sculptors have created works with a marked influence of European classicism.
Romanticism tended to break the strict norms and models of classicism, as it pursued ideas influenced by realism and nationalism. The religious sculpture was reduced to a sporadic imagery, while the secular sculpture continued in portraits and monumental art of a civic nature. Between and the predominant themes were, successively: The transcendent was to introduce civil reasons, the first national types and glimpses of a current of self-expression.
The presence of the human being in the Mexican territory has left important archaeological findings of great importance for the explanation of the habitat of primitive man and contemporary man. The Mesoamerican civilizations managed to have great stylistic development and proportion on the human and urban scale, the form was evolving from simplicity to aesthetic complexity; in the north of the country the adobe and stone architecture is manifested, the multifamily housing as we can see in Casas Grandes ; and the troglodyte dwelling in caves of the Sierra Madre Occidental.
With the arrival of the Spaniards, architectural theories of the Greco-Roman order with Arab influences were introduced. Due to the process of evangelization , when the first monastic temples and monasteries were built, their own models were projected, such as the mendicant monasteries , unique in their type in architecture. The interaction between Spaniards and natives gave rise to artistic styles such as the so-called tequitqui from Nahuatl: Years later the baroque and mannerism were imposed in large cathedrals and civil buildings, while rural areas are built haciendas or stately farms with Mozarabic tendencies.
Romanticists from a past seen through archeology show images of medieval Europe, Islamic and pre-Hispanic Mexico in the form of architectural elements in the construction of international exhibition pavilions looking for an identity typical of the national culture. The art nouveau , and the art deco were styles introduced into the design of the Palacio de Bellas Artes to mark the identity of the Mexican nation with Greek-Roman and pre-Hispanic symbols.
The emergence of the new Mexican architecture was born as a formal order of the policies of a nationalist state that sought modernity and the differentiation of other nations. Juan O'Gorman was one of the first environmental architects in Mexico, developing the "organic" theory, trying to integrate the building with the landscape within the same approaches of Frank Lloyd Wright. The Jalisco School was a proposal of those socio-political movements that the country demanded. Mexican architecture is a cultural phenomenon born of the ideology of nationalist governments of the 20th century, which was shaping the identity image by its colorful and variegated ornamental elements inherited from ancestral cultures, classical and monumental forms and, subsequently, the incorporation of modernism and cutting-edge international trends.
In ethnic and cultural terms, Lo mexicano corresponds only to everything that is referred to the Aztec culture; therefore, ethnically Mexicans are those who are also known as Nahuas and whose language is Nahuatl. In legal terms and in accordance with the Constitution , Mexican is a citizen born within the territory of the United Mexican States or whoever has decided adopt the Mexican citizenship. The Mexican could be what characterizes the being of Mexico and its people; however, it is an ethnic concept that only defines the mestizo identity that had been related for a long time and that is limited with respect to the ethnic diversity of the country.
It is an intellectual construction product of the approaches of specialists to the cultural reality of the country. In trying to capture in a single figure the multicultural reality of Mexico, the result of the intellectual analysis has produced a series of stereotypes and truisms about what it is to be a Mexican. This discourse about The Mexican has been used in the political field to legitimize power, and at the same time it is imposed on the population of the country as a fact beyond all doubt.
The intellectual construction of the mestizo is in dialogue with the triumph of revolutionary nationalism, which was born after the Mexican Revolution. In the reflection on the subject the character of the Mexican, the mexicanity, the definition of a Mexican have participated, among others: Mexican literature has its antecedents in the literatures of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica.
The most well known prehispanic poet is Nezahualcoyotl. Modern Mexican literature was influenced by the concepts of the Spanish colonialization of Mesoamerica. Diego Rivera, the most well-known figure of Mexican muralism, painted the Man at the Crossroads at the Rockefeller Center in New York City, a huge mural that was destroyed the next year because of the inclusion of a portrait of Russian communist leader Lenin.
Mesoamerican architecture is mostly noted for its pyramids which are the largest such structures outside of Ancient Egypt. Mexican films from the Golden Age in the s and s are the greatest examples of Latin American cinema, with a huge industry comparable to the Hollywood of those years. Mexican films were exported and exhibited in all of Latin America and Europe. Some Mexican actors have achieved recognition as Hollywood stars.
There are three major television companies in Mexico that own the primary networks and broadcast covering all nation, Televisa , TV Azteca and Imagen Television. Televisa is also the largest producer of Spanish-language content in the world and also the world's largest Spanish-language media network.
Grupo Multimedios is another media conglomerate with Spanish-language broadcasting in Mexico, Spain, and the United States. Mexican society enjoys a vast array of music genres, showing the diversity of Mexican culture.
Mexico has the largest media industry in Latin America, producing Mexican artists who are famous in Central and South America and parts of Europe, especially Spain.
In , Mexico presented the candidature of its gastronomy for World Heritage Site of UNESCO, being the first occasion in which a country had presented its gastronomic tradition for this purpose.
The origin of the current Mexican cuisine is established during the Spanish colonization, being a mixture of the foods of Spain and the native indigenous. Other Indigenous products are many beans. Similarly, some cooking techniques used today are inherited from pre-Hispanic peoples, such as the nixtamalization of corn, the cooking of food in ovens at ground level, grinding in molcajete and metate. With the Spaniards came the pork, beef and chicken meats; peppercorn , sugar, milk and all its derivatives, wheat and rice, citrus fruits and another constellation of ingredients that are part of the daily diet of Mexicans.
From this meeting of millennia old two culinary traditions, were born pozole , mole sauce , barbacoa and tamale is in its current forms, the chocolate , a large range of breads , tacos , and the broad repertoire of Mexican street foods.
Mexico's most popular sport is association football. It is commonly believed that football was introduced in Mexico by Cornish miners at the end of the 19th century. By a five-team league had emerged with a strong British influence. The Mexican professional baseball league is named the Liga Mexicana de Beisbol. While usually not as strong as the United States, the Caribbean countries and Japan, Mexico has nonetheless achieved several international baseball titles.
Mexico has had several players signed by Major League teams, the most famous of them being Dodgers pitcher Fernando Valenzuela. In , Mexico's basketball team won the Americas Basketball Championship and qualified for the Basketball World Cup where it reached the playoffs.
Bullfighting is a popular sport in the country, and almost all large cities have bullrings. Mexico is an international power in professional boxing at the amateur level, several Olympic boxing medals have also been won by Mexico. Since the early s, Mexico entered a transitional stage in the health of its population and some indicators such as mortality patterns are identical to those found in highly developed countries like Germany or Japan.
Medical training is done mostly at public universities with much specializations done in vocational or internship settings. Some public universities in Mexico, such as the University of Guadalajara , have signed agreements with the U. Health care costs in private institutions and prescription drugs in Mexico are on average lower than that of its North American economic partners.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country in North America. For other uses, see Mexico disambiguation. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding or removing subheadings.
None at federal level [b]. Spanish 68 native languages . Pre-Columbian Mexico and Mesoamerican chronology. Spanish conquest of Mexico. Mexican War of Independence. A jaguar at the Chapultepec Zoo. The zoo is known for its success in breeding programs of threatened species.
Federal government of Mexico. Law enforcement in Mexico. Foreign relations of Mexico. Economic history of Mexico. Electricity sector in Mexico. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. History of science and technology in Mexico. Water supply and sanitation in Mexico. Metropolitan areas of Mexico and List of cities in Mexico.
Religion in Mexico census  Roman Catholicism. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
December Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs additional citations for verification. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Many codices made both during Pre-hispanic Mexico and in the Spanish colony are preserved. The art of the Colonial Mexico center of New Spain developed a large number of painters born in Mexico.
Now these works are preserved in museums in many cities of Mexico. A cultural expression starting in the s created by a group of intellectual Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution , reinforced by the Great Depression and the First World War.
Mexican literature and Mesoamerican literature. Mexican television and List of newspapers in Mexico. The first chocolate version liquid was made by indigenous people in present-day Mexico, and was exported from Mexico to Europe after the Spanish conquest.
Mole sauce , which has dozens of varieties across the Republic, is seen as a symbol of Mexicanidad  and is considered Mexico's national dish.
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The Chinese in Mexico , — University of Arizona Press. The foundations for a new cathedral were begun in and the foundation stone was laid in in the time of Archbishop Pedro Moya de Contreras and of the 4th Viceroy. Between and extensive engineering works were conducted to arrest and rectify damage and distortions caused to the structure by the uneven rate and extent of the sinking of the building provoked by the continuous settlement of the ground on which it stands.
This began with the drainage of the lake of the Valley of Mexico initiated in and has continued with the reduction of the water-table caused by the pumping of water for use by Mexico City's rapidly expanding population. The last of the temporary props which had disfigured the interior of the building during the engineering works were removed on 28 November The exact site was determined in the beginning of the 20th century, but the decision to excavate was not made until , when electrical workers chanced upon an eight-ton stone disk depicting the Aztec goddess Coyolxauhqui.
Excavation unearthed a pyramid built in multiple layers. This is the spot where, according to legend, the Aztecs saw their sign to settle from their wanderings, an eagle perched on a nopal cactus with a snake in its beak, which is still the symbol of Mexico today. The Nacional Monte de Piedad building is the national pawn shop, founded in and one of the largest second-hand shops in the world. These houses originally stretched from modern-day Isabel la Catolica, Madero, Tacuba and Monte de Piedad streets, prompting one chronicler, Cervantes de Salazar to comment that the residence was not a palace but rather another city.
Santo Domingo refers to the Church of Santo Domingo and the adjoining plaza. It is all that is left from the first convent to be established in New Spain. It is flanked to the west by the Portal de Evangelistas,  which is a Tuscan colonnade with round arches. A statue of Josefa Ortiz de Dominguez , a heroine of the Mexican War of Independence stands in a fountain in the middle of the plaza.
The San Ildefonso College currently is a museum and cultural center considered to be the birthplace of the Mexican muralism movement. This school and the building closed completely in , then reopened as a museum and cultural center in Prior to the Conquest , this site was reserved for the ritual known as " Dance of the Flyers " which is still practiced today in Papantla.
Its ownership was in dispute during much of the colonial period, eventually becoming the site of a very large market known as El Volador. It was begun in and completed in and is meters tall, antennae included. It was the tallest tower in Mexico prior to the construction of Torre Pemex.
The building has survived two major earthquakes since it was built, one in and the other in The museum is housed in a neoclassical building at No. It houses a collection representing the history of Mexican art from the late pre-Hispanic era to the early 20th century.
It was originally in the Zocalo but it was moved to several locations, not out of deference to the king but rather to conserve a piece of art, according to the plaque at the base. It is an early 20th-century building built in the style of an Italian Renaissance palace. It remained the archbishphoric until when the Finance Ministry Accountancy Department was established there. The church is also noted for the fact that it has sunk almost three meters since it was built.
The convent existed until , when, due to the Nationalization of Church Property Act, all convents and monasteries in the country were disbanded. Departamento de Estadistica Nacional Dept. It is a green garden with paved paths and decorative fountains and statues, and is frequently the center of civic events.
The area used to be an Aztec marketplace and after the Conquest, the Catholic Church used the area for the burning of heretics and witches. The park was created in , when Viceroy Luis de Velasco decided to create green space here as a public park.
By the late 19th century, the park included a bandstand and gas now electric lamps. It is very small, consisting only of a number of restaurants and businesses that import goods. Despite this, it is considered the nucleus of the approximately 3, families with Chinese heritage in Mexico City. From Aztec times, the Centro Historico used to be where the wealthy and elite lived. The Centro remained the commercial, political and intellectual center through the mid 20th century although it was around this time that UNAM moved most of its facilities to the new Ciudad Universitaria.
In the s, the city government froze rents so that until when the government repealed the law, tenants were still paying 's-level rents. With no financial incentive to keep up their properties, landlords let their buildings disintegrate. The earthquake took its toll on a number of these structures, which were never fixed or rebuilt, leading to slums and garbage-strewn vacant lots. The result was the loss of about , residents of the "Colonia Centro", leaving the area almost deserted at night.
By the s, so many had fled the Centro that many of its former mansions were either abandoned or turned into tenements for the poor,   and its sidewalks and streets taken over by pickpockets and milling vendors. Many of historic churches in the oldest parts of the city are in serious disrepair and are in danger of being lost. Efforts to save these churches are hampered by disagreements between the Church and the federal government.
Because these churches are both active religious institutions and historical landmarks, their legal situation is complicated. Some of the disagreement is over the extent of the deterioration. Conaculta does not believe that any of the 68 religious buildings in the oldest part of city are in imminent danger of collapse. However the Archdiocese of Mexico believes that the structural problems noted constitute a grave danger to both people and to the "incalculable artistic and historic value of the buildings.
The San Lorenzo and Loreto churches both have had incidences where large pieces of the building, a stone and a window respectively, have fallen, causing damage but no injuries. Despite efforts by the archdiocese to demonstrate the extent of the damage of many of the churches, Conaculta still maintains that none of the buildings are in danger of coming down.
Another problem is that the depopulation of the historic center, which leaves these churches fairly empty and the diocese unable to fund restoration work.
An architect was put in charge of each of the thirteen main streets to restore the facades of more than buildings. In the process, artifacts dating from as early as the pre-Hispanic period have been unearthed. All over the historic center, streets have been pedestrianized, buildings have been remodeled and restored, and new museums opened. In the s, after many years of controversy, protests and even riots, most street vendors were evicted to other parts of the city.
It has also installed nearly security cameras to help with crime issues. To attract more tourists, there are new red double-decker buses. As of , investment in the city center has climbed to over 5 billion pesos or million U. According to the Historic Center of Mexico City Trust, this has led to the creation of 15, jobs and property owners in the area are showing interest in improving on their investments here.